Sucre vs. Gras : Pourquoi on grossit ? – Épisode 2

Dans cette deuxième partie de la série “Pourquoi on grossit ?”, regardons si la hausse des calories consommées et l’explosion de l’obésité peuvent être causées par l’un des macronutriments, et plus particulièrement par les glucides ou les lipides.

  • Réparition par macro et par famille d’aliments
    UN Food and Agricultural Organization FAOstat food balance sheets.
  • Protéines
    Gosby AK, Conigrave AD, Lau NS, et al. Testing protein leverage in lean humans: a randomised controlled experimental study. PLoS One 2011;6:e25929.
    Leaf A, Antonio J. The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition – A Narrative Review . Int J Exerc Sci. (2017)
    Madsen, L., Myrmel, L. S., Fjære, E., Liaset, B. & Kristiansen, K. Links between Dietary Protein Sources, the Gut Microbiota, and Obesity. Frontiers in Physiology 8, (2017).
    Martens EA, Lemmens SG, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Protein leverage affects energy intake of high-protein diets in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;97:86-93.
    Martens EA, Tan SY, Dunlop MV, Mattes RD, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Protein leverage effects of beef protein on energy intake in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 99:1397-1406.
    Smith, G. I. et al. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women. Cell Reports 17, 849–861 (2016).
  • Glucides vs Lipides
    Black RNA, Spence M, McMahon RO, Cuskelly GJ, Ennis CN, McCance DR, et al. Effect of eucaloric high- and low-sucrose diets with identical macronutrient profile on insulin resistance and vascular risk: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes. 2006 Dec;55(12):3566–72.
    Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 1994 Sep;17(9):961–9.
    Feinman, R. D. et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base. Nutrition 31, 1–13 (2015).
    Gardner, C. D. et al. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion. JAMA 319, 667 (2018).
    Hall, K. D. & Guo, J. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology 152, 1718–1727.e3 (2017).
    Hamman RF, Wing RR, Edelstein SL, Lachin JM, Bray GA, Delahanty L, et al. Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Sep;29(9):2102–7.
    Hooper, L. et al. Effects of total fat intake on body weight. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2015).
    Horst KW ter, Schene MR, Holman R, Romijn JA, Serlie MJ. Effect of fructose consumption on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diet-intervention trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec 1;104(6):1562–76.
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393–403.
    Kosaka K, Noda M, Kuzuya T. Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: a Japanese trial in IGT males. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Feb;67(2):152–62.
    Lewis AS, McCourt HJ, Ennis CN, Bell PM, Courtney CH, McKinley MC, et al. Comparison of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a eucaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects: effects on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profile. A randomised controlled trial. Metabolism. 2013 May;62(5):694–702.
    Moreno, B. et al. Comparison of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet with a standard low-calorie diet in the treatment of obesity. Endocrine 47, 793–805 (2014).
    Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997 Apr;20(4):537–44.
    Poulsen P, Kyvik KO, Vaag A, Beck-Nielsen H. Heritability of type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance—a population-based twin study. Diabetologia. 1999 Feb;42(2):139–45.
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, Mukesh B, Bhaskar AD, Vijay V, et al. The Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IDPP-1). Diabetologia. 2006 Feb;49(2):289–97.
    Sartorius, K., Sartorius, B., Madiba, T. E. & Stefan, C. Does high-carbohydrate intake lead to increased risk of obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 8, e018449 (2018).
    Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, Griffen SC, Bremer AA, Graham JL, et al. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest. 2009 May;119(5):1322–34.
    Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 3;344(18):1343–50.
  • Insuline et pris de poids
    Brøns, C. et al. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding on glucose and insulin metabolism in young healthy men. The Journal of Physiology 587, 2387–2397 (2009).
    Chinayon, S. & Goldrick, R. Effects of Overfeeding on Carbohydrate Tolerance, Insulin Secretion, Esterification and Lipolysis in Healthy Subjects. Hormone and Metabolic Research 10, 182–186 (1978).
    Gambacciani, M. et al. Body Weight, Body Fat Distribution, and Hormonal Replacement Therapy in Early Postmenopausal Women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 82, 414–417 (1997).
    Gravholt, C. H. et al. Body composition is distinctly altered in Turner syndrome: relations to glucose metabolism, circulating adipokines, and endothelial adhesion molecules. European Journal of Endocrinology 155, 583–592 (2006).
    Kersten, S. Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis. EMBO reports 2, 282–286 (2001).
  • Famine interne
    Folsom AR, Szklo M, Stevens J, Liao F, Smith R, Eckfeldt JH. A prospective study of coronary heart disease in relation to fasting insulin, glucose, and diabetes. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:935–942.
    Gordon, E. S. Non-Esterified Fatty Acids in the Blood of Obese and Lean Subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 8, 740–747 (1960).
    Karpe, F., Dickmann, J. R. & Frayn, K. N. Fatty Acids, Obesity, and Insulin Resistance: Time for a Reevaluation. Diabetes 60, 2441–2449 (2011).
    Makimura H, Stanley TL, Suresh C, et al. Metabolic effects of long-term reduction in free fatty acids with acipimox in obesity: a randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(3):1123-1133. doi:10.1210/jc.2015-3696
  • Index glycémique
    Alfenas RC, Mattes RD. Influence of glycemic index/load on glycemic response, appetite, and food intake in healthy humans. Diabetes Care. 28(9):2123-9 (2005).
    Aston, L. M., Stokes, C. S. & Jebb, S. A. No effect of a diet with a reduced glycaemic index on satiety, energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women. International Journal of Obesity 32, 160–165 (2007).
    Flint, A. et al. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies. British Journal of Nutrition 98, 17 (2007).
    Gallwitz, B. Implications of Postprandial Glucose and Weight Control in People With Type 2 Diabetes: Understanding and implementing the International Diabetes Federation guidelines. Diabetes Care 32, S322–S325 (2009).
    Gladys Barrera, Laura Leiva, María Pía de la Maza y Daniel Bunout, – Sandra Hirsch. VARIABILIDAD DE LAS RESPUESTAS GLUCÉMICA Y DE INSULINA, INTRA E. NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA 541–544 (2013). doi:10.3305/nh.2013.28.2.6161
    Holt SH, Brand Miller JC, Petocz P. Interrelationships among postprandial satiety, glucose and insulin responses and changes in subsequent food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. Dec;50(12):788-97 (1996).
    Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E. A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. Sep;49(9):675-90 (1995).
    Krog-Mikkelsen, I. et al. A Low Glycemic Index Diet Does Not Affect Postprandial Energy Metabolism but Decreases Postprandial Insulinemia and Increases Fullness Ratings in Healthy Women. The Journal of Nutrition 141, 1679–1684 (2011).
    McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Saltzman E, Wilson PW, Jacques PF. Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diabetes Care. Feb;27(2):538-46 (2004).
    Schultes, B. et al. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men. Appetite 105, 562–566 (2016).
    Sloth, B. et al. No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, 337–347 (2004).
    Williams, S. M. et al. Another approach to estimating the reliability of glycaemic index. British Journal of Nutrition 100, (2008).
    Zeevi, D. et al. Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses. Cell 163, 1079–1094 (2015).
  • Cétogène / Faim
    Foster, G. D. et al. A controlled comparison of three very-low-calorie diets: effects on weight, body composition, and symptoms. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 811–817 (1992).
    Johnston, C. S. et al. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83, 1055–1061 (2006).
    Johnstone, A. M., Horgan, G. W., Murison, S. D., Bremner, D. M. & Lobley, G. E. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, 44–55 (2008).
    Lobley, G. E. et al. Glucose uptake by the brain on chronic high-protein weight-loss diets with either moderate or low amounts of carbohydrate. British Journal of Nutrition 111, 586–597 (2013).
    Martin, C. K. et al. Change in Food Cravings, Food Preferences, and Appetite During a Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet. Obesity 19, 1963–1970 (2011).
    McClernon, F. J., Yancy, W. S., Eberstein, J. A., Atkins, R. C. & Westman, E. C. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and a Low-Fat Diet on Mood, Hunger, and Other Self-Reported Symptoms*. Obesity 15, 182–182 (2007).
    Nickols-Richardson, S. M., Coleman, M. D., Volpe, J. J. & Hosig, K. W. Perceived Hunger Is Lower and Weight Loss Is Greater in Overweight Premenopausal Women Consuming a Low-Carbohydrate/High-Protein vs High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105, 1433–1437 (2005).
    Saslow, L. R. et al. A Randomized Pilot Trial of a Moderate Carbohydrate Diet Compared to a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet in Overweight or Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or Prediabetes. PLoS ONE 9, e91027 (2014).
    Soenen, S. et al. Relatively high-protein or “low-carb” energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance? Physiology & Behavior 107, 374–380 (2012).
  • Avantage métabolique suivant la répartition glucides/lipides
    Ebbeling, C. B. et al. Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial. BMJ k4583 (2018).
    Hall, K. D. & Guo, J. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology 152, 1718–1727.e3 (2017).
    Hall, K. D. et al. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. Cell Metabolism 22, 427–436 (2015)
    Hall, K. D. et al. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 104, 324–333 (2016).
    Hill, J. O. et al. Nutrient balance in humans: effects of diet composition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 10–17 (1991).
    Hirsch, J., Hudgins, L. C., Leibel, R. L. & Rosenbaum, M. Diet composition and energy balance in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 551S–555S (1998).

8 Commentaires

  1. Bonjour Benjamin, excellente vidéo ! Une question : j’ai peut être raté un passage mais je ne suis pas sûr que tu aies parlé de cette étude que tu cites en source : Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial

  2. Ça c’est du Naturacoach, merci beaucoup pour cet immense travail de synthèse !

    Bien que dans l’absolu, les résultats soient similaires à apports caloriques égaux pour la perte de poids, les régimes pauvres en glucides ne sont-ils pas légèrement supérieurs d’un point de vue santé, étant donné qu’ils permettent de limiter les variations de la glycémie, et donc d’éviter des pics d’insuline potentiellement problématiques (en cas de diabète ou pré-diabète, d’acné, etc.) ?

  3. Bonjour Benjamin,

    Je suis tes travaux depuis quelques années, maintenant. Et je tenais tout d’abord à te remercier pour ce travail de qualité qui surpasse même certains articles scientifiques.
    J’ai des questions suites à tes vidéos:
    – Tu dis qu’il n’y a pas de différence notable de perte de poids selon le sport et la technique utilisée. Y a t il de ton point de vue une préférence dans certains types de sport ?
    Je pense au sport à jeûn, le HIIT, le crossfit, la course à pied en fractionnée/endurance fondamentale.

    – Un autre point que je voudrais aborder, le jeune intermittent. As tu vu des effets intéressants ?

    Merci d’avance pour tes réponses.
    PS: La partie sur l’environnement contrôlé m’a particulièrement plu. En général, tout le monde passe à la trappe cette partie, belle effort intellectuelle 😉
    Merci encore pour ce travail.
    Sinon bientôt un nouveau programme ?? Tes programmes sont toujours d’actualité ou sont devenus désuet ?

    Kévin

  4. Tu m as bluffée je ne voulais pas croire que le low carb et cetogene pouvaient être sujet à forte critique et fort recul… et fort lobbying 😁 bravo continue ton travail de reinformation .

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